Short track (from the English short track - "short track") - the discipline of speed skating. A type of personal-team competition in which the main task of an athlete on skates is to cover the distance marked on the ice hockey field with maximum speed.
The track for short track competitions has an oval shape, and is most often marked within hockey rinks, the minimum dimensions of which are 60x30m (ice thickness - 40 mm, temperature - about - 6 ° C). The length of such a track is 111.12 m, the width of the straight part is 7 m, the distance from the marking block indicating the top of the turn to the side is 4 m.
In addition to the standard track, there are 4 more tracks on the ice rink, shifting 1 and 2 meters in both directions from it. The start and finish lines are marked with colored lines, the width of which is 2 cm, at an angle of 90º to the straight part of the track, and the length of the starting line is equal to the width of the straight part of the track, and the finish line is 1.5 meters longer.
At the line marking the start of the race, there are dots 2 cm in diameter, marking the starting positions of the competitors. The distance between the points is 1.3 m, the first of them is applied 50 cm from the inside of the track.
There are similar points throughout the course, and indicate the location of markers made of dense, inflexible black rubber (natural or synthetic). Additional markers are used to mark the start line, which are removed immediately after the start of the race.
The sides of the ice rink are protected by fencing mats, the thickness of which is 20.32 cm, the length is at least 2.13 m, and the height is equal to the height of the sides of the ice rink. Mats are made of foam rubber, and they consist of 2 parts - denser (thickness - 7.62 cm, density - 32.04 kg / m3) and softer (thickness - 12.7 cm, density - 22.43 kg / m3 ). They are covered on top with a dense vinyl fabric that is resistant to cuts and abrasion. The mats are interconnected and attached to the rink board.
This type of speed skating appeared in Canada at the beginning of the last century (the first short track speed skating competitions were held in North America in 1906), but was adopted under the auspices of the International Skating Union only in 1967. Even after that, no international short track speed skating competition took place until 1976.
The technical committee for this sport, uniting 30 national federations, was created in 1975, and the first World Championship was held in 1981. In 1988, short track speed skating was a demonstration discipline at the XV Olympiad in Calgary (Canada), and has been included in the number of Olympic sports since 1992.
The program of the Olympic Games, since 1994 (XVII Olympiad, Lillehammer (Norway)) - 6 types of short track competitions:
• individual championship in running on 500 meters (4.4 laps) and 1000 meters (9 laps) among men and women (as a rule, 4 athletes participate);
• relay race of 3000 m (27 laps) for women and 5000 m (45 laps) for men (5 athletes can be entered).
Also, during the competition in this sport, there may be competitions in running on 1500 m (13.5 laps). The races last three days (in exceptional cases, two days) and are held according to the Olympic system: first, qualifying races (hits).
Participants in the first qualifying round (32 people) are distributed in accordance with the rating of the athletes: the one who takes the first place is placed in the first race, the second in the second, and so on, until the last race.
After filling the first places, this procedure continues in the opposite direction, i.e. first, the athlete who will take second place in the last race is determined, then the one who will be placed in second place in the penultimate race, etc.
Third places in races are distributed from left to right, like the first, fourth places - from right to left, like the second. Places for athletes not included in the ranking list will be allocated based on the results of a draw.
The results shown by the athletes during these races are recorded on the main control chart. In the next round of competitions (1/16 finals), the athletes who took 1st and 2nd places in the hits, as well as some participants who took 3rd place and showed the best time, go. Participants of the 1/8, ¼, ½ finals and the race at the final distance are selected according to the same principle.
The movement of athletes is counterclockwise. The break between races is at least 20 minutes for each participant, in addition, athletes have the opportunity to warm up 45 minutes before the start of the competition, which ends no later than 15 minutes before the start of the hits, in order to make it possible to prepare the ice field for the competition. 8 teams of 4 people each take part in the relay. The 2 winning teams advance to the final.
Short track - movement on the ice field on metal skates. It really is. But there is also a type of short track in which athletes compete in roller skating. Competitions of this kind are held on grounds with a special coating. It should also be mentioned that due to the fact that rollers are chosen as the means of transportation in this sport, athletes have to use special techniques during the distance, which are fundamentally different from the methods in the usual short track. The mentioned sport has not gained much popularity at the moment.
Short track speed skating originated from speed skating. Professionals claim that short track speed skating is not a derivative of speed skating, but the next stage of development, behind which there is a great future. If only because for practicing this discipline, only a small hockey field is enough, which means that athletes will not need to travel to specialized stadiums in large cities for training.
Short track competitions are extremely time consuming. Yes, competition participants will have to demonstrate their skills and abilities several times in a row to achieve victory. However, according to the athletes themselves, loads of this kind are familiar to them, since short track training takes place at approximately the same rhythm, except that the breaks between races are somewhat shorter than at competitions.
Short track training has a negative impact on the health of an athlete. Unfortunately this is the case. The very sharp turns that athletes make, relying on special markers, put a lot of stress on the spinal column, resulting in pain in the lower back and back. Therefore, everyone who has chosen this sport is trying to make every effort to strengthen the muscles of the back, devoting a lot of time to warm-up before performances and cool down at the end of the races.
In short track speed skating, the easiest way to achieve success is for people who are involved in professional speed skating. The ability of skaters to feel confident on the ice in short track speed skating is very useful. However, it should be borne in mind that sometimes certain parameters that are ideal for speed skating (for example, high growth and strong muscles) in short track speed skating can become an obstacle on the way to high achievements. Indeed, in this sport, agility and speed of movement are important, therefore, most of the winners are people of short stature and rather slender. But athletes move from short track speed skaters quite often, and achieve considerable success.
Short track skaters sharpen their skates very often to move faster. Yes, indeed in this sport you have to sharpen skates after each race, therefore all athletes have a machine and a stone for sharpening the blades, as well as a smaller stone for removing the burrs remaining after sharpening. But you shouldn't think that the sharpness of the blade affects the speed. Extremely sharp skates (blade thickness - 1.1 - 1.2 mm), having a length of 40-46 cm, of a special shape (skids are mobile and slightly curved) allow athletes to take very sharp turns in short track. However, sometimes athletes also participate in competitions of this kind on simple skates.
For sharpening skate blades in a short track, any machine and whetstone will work. This is not entirely true. The machines into which the blades are inserted and firmly fixed by means of nuts differ from manufacturer to manufacturer, and sometimes are only suitable for working with blades manufactured by the same company. Therefore, when planning to purchase a machine, be sure to ask the seller if it is suitable for sharpening blades from different manufacturers. The same rule should be applied when choosing a blade folding machine. When choosing stones for sharpening blades, it should be remembered that really high-quality goods are produced in the USA, but Dutch stones, although cheaper, most often either quickly grind off or crumble.
The blades of the skates should be centered on the sole of the boots. No, in short track the blades are shifted slightly to the left. This is done so that during sharp turns the athlete's boots do not touch the ice.
To win in short track speed skating, you need to develop your maximum speed. This is not entirely true, since the main task of an athlete is not to set a world record (although this is possible), but to cross the finish line first. And for this, you should think over a strategy of behavior, taking into account your capabilities and taking into account the tactics of your opponents. Indeed, sometimes an athlete goes almost the entire distance at a not particularly impressive speed, only at the end giving all his best. This skater will finish first, although his average result will be worse than his opponent moving at a consistently higher speed.
The sportsmen's helmets are the same and always yellow. Misconception. Each competitor has his own helmet (made of special durable plastic), and not always yellow. And the effect of uniformity is obtained due to the yellow fabric covers with clearly distinguishable black numbers, which are assigned to each athlete as a result of the draw. These covers are worn over the helmet. The only general requirement is that there are no protrusions, sharp corners or elongated fairings on the helmet. It should be noted that the skater who earned the highest number of final points at the end of the distance receives from the organizers of the competition a helmet covering in a contrasting color (most often red). And during the relay, each team receives a covering of helmets (or jerseys) of a certain color, so that it is easier to follow the movement of the players of this or that team across the field.
In short track skating, the main thing is equipment and technique. Good skates, appropriate clothing and protective equipment, and the ability to apply certain skills in the sport are, of course, essential. However, according to professionals, the most important thing in short track speeding is the tactics and strategy of the future race.
Outfit in short track skating is somewhat different from the usual attire of skaters. Yes, for short track training you need special skates with specially shaped blades, hard leather gloves with special shapes, cast from epoxy glue, put on your fingers. In addition, athletes must wear durable helmets, knee pads, elbow pads, chin and neck shields, the main task of which is to protect the competitor from injury. Some athletes use glasses with colored lenses to protect their eyes from ice crumbs, wind and glitter of ice.
After each run, the ice is poured with water to level. Moreover, the site is filled with hot water, which falls deep into the cracks, simultaneously melting the ice, and after freezing forms a perfectly flat surface. Most often, this operation is performed manually.
After completing the distance, the athletes who have scored the same amount of points are declared leaders. No, there is only one leader in the race. If two skaters scored the same total of final points, the athlete with the most scattering points is declared the leader.
In short track speed skating, the baton can be passed at any point in the course. Moreover, the rules do not prohibit pushing a teammate by one of the relay participants to give him more acceleration.
Children are allowed to compete in short track speed skating from 11 years old. No, the first (younger) age group includes girls and boys 9-11 years old.
Athletes in short track speed skating are divided into age groups and compete only with representatives of their own group. This is true when it comes to international competitions. However, in some cases, at competitions held by a Short Track Federation of a country, athletes of the younger age group may compete with representatives of the senior groups by the decision of the Short Track Federation, agreed with the coaching council, if the doctor's permission is given.
The judging panel of the short track must have at least 10-12 people. In fact, the panel of judges for this sport is much more extensive. In addition to the chief judge and his deputies (from 2 to 4), it includes the senior judge at the finish and the judge at the finish (from 4 to 6), the judge of the photo finish (1-2 people), the starter and his assistant, lap counters (from 1 up to 4), senior timekeeper and timekeepers (from 4 to 6), informing judges (1-2), judges with participants (according to the number of participants). But there is also a hitbox judge who monitors the athletes' equipment, a judge who records lap times, the chief secretary and his deputy, secretaries (usually 3-4 people), the commandant and the competition doctor.
The chief judge has the right to cancel the erroneous, in his opinion, decisions of the other judges. Yes it is. However, the chief referee has no right to change the decisions of the starter judge regarding the start of the athletes and the finish judge on the issue of the order of the participants' arrival at the finish line.
A shot from the starting pistol sounds only once - at the beginning of the race. No, in short track speed skating, the pistol is used twice during the relay - at the start and after the referee, counting the laps, notifies the starter that the athletes have 3 last laps left. Also, a shot (or a whistle) can signal the return of athletes after a false start to a restart.
There must be 4 judges at the finish, each of whom registers the arrival of 1 athlete. Yes, there are indeed four judges at the finish. The first of them registers the arrival of 1 and 2 athletes, the second - 2 and 3, the third - 3 and 4, the fourth - 4 and 5 (if there are 4-5 participants). If there are more than 5 participants in the race, the starter or his assistant joins the finish judges, whose task is to record the arrival of the 6th athlete.
One of the judges is obliged to count the laps covered by the athletes during the race. It is the responsibility of the lap counter to observe the leader in the race. It is in accordance with the results of the leading athlete that the readings change on the scoreboard, and it is not the number of already completed laps that is indicated, but the number of laps that remain to be completed before the finish.
On the ice, in addition to the participants in the race, there is only the chief referee and two of his deputies. No, in addition to the members of the panel of judges, there can be from 2 to 4 people on the ice rink, whose duties include equipment maintenance (replacing the knocked-down markers, shifting the track by moving the markings, etc.).
During the competition, deputy chief referees are accommodated with him in the center of the rink. There are only two deputy chief referees on the ice field, two more are placed outside the ice - at the beginning or end of each turn.
A participant in the race can personally contact the head judge if he believes that there has been a violation of the rules in relation to him. No, requests of this kind are conducted exclusively through a team representative, or through the coach (or captain) of the team.
If a competitor has been replaced (for example, in case of illness), he will not be able to take part in other races. Yes, however, the athlete can still participate in the relay if his health condition allows.
Overtaking on a short track is not prohibited. Moreover, in this sport, it is possible to overtake rivals on any part of the track, and it is the overtaking athlete who is responsible for a possible collision. The one who was overtaken has the right to continue the competition, but must move closer to the side so as not to interfere with other participants.
If an athlete is overtaken twice, he is eliminated from the competition. Yes, by the decision of the head judge, the athlete must stop the race, as he is in a disadvantageous position. An exception is the final race, during which the above rule does not apply.
Participants in the race will be disqualified if they have a physical impact on their opponents. In addition, the head judge may disqualify athletes who, in his opinion, twice (during the first and repeated heats) have evaded the fight for the championship in the race ("No competition" is announced). Also, an athlete can be disqualified in case of a repeated false start or refusal to participate in the official events of the competition.
When an athlete is disqualified, all points earned by him will be canceled. No, a disqualified athlete loses points only for the race in which he was disqualified, and loses the right to participate in the next round. The points scored before the moment of disqualification remain unchanged, although they are not included in the final final classification (since the results of an athlete who, for any reason, did not start at one of the distances of the all-around, are not taken into account in the final classification).
The last 2 laps in the relay must be run by the same participant. Indeed, although the number of laps run in the relay by each athlete is randomly selected by the team members, the last 2 laps must be overcome by the same person. He can be replaced by another athlete only if he falls during the last segment of the relay route.
Soviet athletes began to participate in short track competitions in 1985. In the World Winter Universiade, which was held in February 1985 in the city of Belluno (Italy), the USSR team did take part, however, it was the short track competitions, which replaced the classic distances, that the athletes watched from the stands, as they were completely unprepared for this format of the competition. But already in April 1986 the USSR team took part in the World Short Track Speed Skating Championship held in Chamonix (France). The best result of Soviet athletes in these competitions is 23rd place. And after 2 years at the European Cup-88, the same short track athletes took 2nd and 3rd places at distances of 500 m and 3000 m and 4th place in the relay, thereby surprising the international community a lot.
Two athletes from the same team must not participate in the same race. In this case, the competition organizers will try to transfer the second athlete to another race. If a suitable race is not found, the athlete can remain in the group of the original race.
There can be no more than 4 participants in one race. If we are talking about a distance from 400 to 1000 m, no more than 4 athletes should really go on the ice. But at a distance of 1500 m, 6 people can compete. In the final races at a distance of 1500 m, 4 people participate (juniors or juniors - 6 people), at a distance of 3000 m or 5000 m (relay) - 8 people.