Milk is a secretory fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals of animals and humans during lactation, physiologically intended for feeding babies.
In the first days after childbirth, colostrum is excreted, which gradually passes into milk of the usual composition. Caloric content of human milk 65-70 kcal / 100 g, pH = 6.9-7.5, density 1.030-1.032 g / cm3, chemical composition (%): water 87.4, casein 0.91, albumin and globulin 1, 23, fat 3.76, milk sugar 6.29, ash 0.31; also contains a certain amount of mineral salts and vitamins A, B, C and D.
The milk of farm animals is a valuable food product. Milk of cows is especially widely used in human nutrition, more limitedly - milk of goats, sheep, mares, camels, donkeys, buffaloes, zebu females, yak, and reindeer. Lactic acid products, butter, ice cream are produced from animal milk. Milk includes: water, proteins, fat, milk sugar (lactose), minerals (including trace elements), vitamins, enzymes, hormones, immune bodies, gases, microorganisms, pigments.
In air, milk turns sour, that is, it undergoes acidic fermentation. When souring, the top layer turns into sour cream, the bottom - into curdled milk. Subject to alcoholic fermentation, milk gives kumis (mare's milk) and kefir (cow's milk).
The boxed milk sold in stores is made from powder. This is a myth, the content depends little on the packaging. Milk, which is produced in whole or in part from canned milk, has, or, in any case, should have the inscription "reconstituted". In fact, it is a milk drink and cannot be called milk.
Milk can only be drunk by children; adults cannot absorb this drink. This is a fairly common myth, generated by the speculation that in nature, no mammal drinks milk in adulthood. This is also confirmed by information about the absence of a gene responsible for the successful processing of milk in humans throughout the sixth millennium BC. But the thing is that the ability to carry milk sugar - lactose, evolved in the human body very quickly - by the fifth millennium BC. Thus, milk is perfectly absorbed in the body of an adult, with the exception of cases of individual milk intolerance or hypersensitivity to milk proteins.
A glass of milk is the best medicine for all diseases. Of course, milk is not a panacea for all ailments, but it is known that even Hippocrates treated nervous disorders with diluted donkey milk, and Avicenna emphasized the healing power of cow's milk. There is also known a method of treating tuberculosis with kumis, a drink made from mare's milk. Modern scientists recognize that milk is especially useful for atherosclerosis, as well as for chronic liver diseases. In addition, milk has the ability to lower blood pressure in hypertension.
Milk is given "for harm", since only it neutralizes all negative effects on the human body. It is a myth. To date, it has been scientifically proven that milk has the ability to remove harmful substances just like any other liquid. Thus, in toxic production, milk can be replaced with juices, fruit drinks or even tea with the same success.
Milk should be drunk separately from all products. This is true, and all because, getting into the stomach, milk simply curls up and envelops all the pieces of other food, thereby preventing the process of their digestion. Therefore, milk is best consumed separately. The exception, perhaps, is people with partial lactose intolerance, it is just better for them to drink some solid foods with milk, which will significantly slow down the absorption of lactose, without affecting the benefits of milk.
Pasteurized milk is no different from sterilized milk. And yet there is a difference, and, moreover, a significant one. During pasteurization, milk is heated to 60-70 degrees Celsius, which allows you to preserve some beneficial microorganisms, although the shelf life is reduced to 36 hours. But sterilized milk, although it can be stored for up to 6 months, but due to heating to 115-135 degrees and subsequent sharp cooling, it loses almost all the beneficial bacteria. Thus, sterilized milk is inferior to pasteurized milk, but neither heat treatment has any effect on the preservation of the amount of vitamins.
Homogenized milk contains genetically modified foods. This is a myth of pure water, or even more appropriate, pure milk. Milk is homogenized before sterilization, so that during long-term storage the taste of the drink does not spoil the flaked cream. Homogenization is simply the breaking down of fat globules in milk into small particles.
It is impossible to determine whether whole milk is diluted with water or not. It's a delusion. There is such a method and, moreover, it is very simple. You just need to drop milk into a glass of water. A drop of undiluted milk will first sink to the bottom and only then will spread, and if the milk has been diluted, the drop will dissolve in water immediately.
Milk is a source of allergens. This is certainly not true when it comes to natural milk as well as consumers who are not allergic to milk protein. However, it should be borne in mind that the more heat treatment milk is subjected to, the worse this milk is absorbed - due to a change in the ability of the protein to dissolve, which means that the risk of allergic reactions increases.
If the milk has expired, you can make curd from it. This is only partly true. After all, for example, cottage cheese will definitely not work out of sterilized milk - at the end of the shelf life it does not turn sour, but simply tastes bad, since during heat treatment, together with other bacteria, those that cause lactic acid fermentation are destroyed. This is the price to pay for the long, up to six months, shelf life of sterilized milk. So those who want to experiment with the independent production of cottage cheese at home can be advised to use milk with a shorter shelf life for these purposes - up to one and a half days or buy a can of fresh milk on the market.
Dairy products help you lose weight. Studies have shown that consuming dairy products daily (1 yogurt, 1 cup low-fat milk, and 15 grams of cheese) helps you burn fat and lose weight. Dutch scientists have shown that calcium-rich foods also contribute to weight loss. All this is true, but this does not mean that you can eat everything, drink milk or eat yogurt, and still not gain extra pounds. If you want to lose weight, keep track of what you eat, calories and fats, and include dairy products in your diet.
Fermented milk products are irreplaceable on the human table. It's true. Since a person has long been using milk in his diet, he managed to transform it for his needs. Fermented milk products are good for your health because they contain a large amount of beneficial bacteria - an important component for bowel function. And the state of the intestines affects the entire human body, maintaining the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract in a normal state is one of the main conditions of our health. Kefir, cottage cheese, sour cream can also be eaten by people with lactose deficiency, because under the action of bacteria, the amount of lactose is reduced to a harmless level (as well as the amount of radionuclides and dioxins). And the beneficial properties of milk as a result of lactic acid fermentation do not deteriorate, but even improve.
Regular milk can be replaced with soy milk without harm to health. Soy milk, although it resembles natural milk in consistency, in no way can replace it. However, for people with complete lactose intolerance, soy milk can be a good alternative to regular milk, especially since it has been proven that long-term consumption of soy protein helps prevent cancer.
Africans absolutely hate milk. Indeed, not only Africans, but also many peoples inhabiting the countries of Asia and Africa, North American Indians do not tolerate milk well. The milk sugar in milk is broken down by a special enzyme. As soon as the child's stage of lactotrophic nutrition ends, the activity of this enzyme also decreases. And if some peoples during a long evolution did not use milk in their diet, then they developed lactose intolerance. Therefore, people of the Asian and Negro races may have diarrhea from milk. Milk is well tolerated by the inhabitants of Scandinavia, where dairy farming has been developed for 2 thousand years.