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Hacker (English Hack - to shred) - a person who commits various kinds of illegal actions in the field of computer science:
- unauthorized entry into other people's computer networks and obtaining information from them;
- illegal removal of protection from software products and their copying;
- creation and distribution of computer viruses, etc.
Initially, a hacker is a highly professional and very curious programmer, capable of non-trivial solutions. Skilled in the intricacies of computer systems, such a programmer is capable of both great benefit and significant damage. Hackers are largely driven by interest and curiosity, a thirst for research. This is confirmed by the versatile erudition, erudition of hackers.
Hackers can be roughly divided into three groups:
1. Crackers - break software protections from serial numbers to hardware keys. The main tools are a debugger and a disassembler. Almost every PC user is familiar with the product of their activity.
2. Phreakers - are engaged in telephony. For example, a cell phone has been created that does not have to be paid for. There are eternal calling cards. Devices for telephone long-distance conversation with payment, both in the city, etc.
3. Network hackers. The goal is global and local networks.
In general, the concept of hacking is often used without understanding and requires explanation. Hacking (scientifically) - unauthorized access. Those. there are some foreseen methods of using software, networks ... But if you improve the Shareware program by removing ads from it, or simply log into the network without your password, this is already a hack. To hack the system you need:
1. Find flaws in the protection of the system by examining it.
2. Develop a software implementation of the attack.
3. Implement it.
If a person has never done the first and second, then he cannot be attributed to hackers. When breaking into systems, hackers, as a rule, try to remain unnoticed even by the administrator, not to mention the users of the system.
Hacking is when the main page on the server is changed. This is not true. When they change the main page on the site, this is deface. Hacking is not necessarily a server hack. You can hack the boss's cell phone or CD copy protection. And in general, the concept of hacking is penetration where "unauthorized entry is prohibited." Therefore, even going through the "Stuff Only" door at McDonald's, you will crack the Mac in this way. It doesn't matter if you held the door with your foot behind the last person leaving or connected your Palm to the computer lock on the door and hacked the code, or put a grenade launcher to the guard's head. These are all hacking methods.
A hacker is a computer addict who does not crawl out from behind a computer, who thinks only about the computer and what is connected with it. In principle, a hacker may or may not be a computer addict (which is more common). And computer lovers are many gamers and fans of Internet chats who work on a computer only as users. Of course, you can escape from unbearable reality into hacking by creating your own world on your computer. But it's easier to do this with a video or toys. Many hackers communicate with each other and, if over the network, then in view of maintaining anonymity and distance from each other. Although some have a certain fear of communicating with people. If we consider specific cases, for example, the notorious Kevin Mitnick, the following should be noted. From adolescence, he showed excellent communication skills and easily attracted anyone. True, the doctor forcibly (by court order) treating Kevin for computer addiction writes about him the following: “hacking gives Quinn a sense of self-respect, which he lacks in real life. to respect himself, he just needed to break. Although it should be noted that for self-respect, many need the gratitude of others, money, status in society (career), success with the opposite sex, etc. etc.
Hackers can do anything. A hacker is an ordinary person with certain abilities and very serious experience in the field of computers. The prevalence of this myth, apparently, is explained by a certain "reverence" of the average man in the street before the "omnipotent" hacker. An important role in the development of this attitude towards hackers was played by feature films, where they are one of the characters. The actions they take on the screen, as a rule, have nothing to do with reality at all. The excitement around hackers creates in the minds of people far from computer security problems, their cultured media, as well as fiction and art, an image that has practically nothing to do with reality: they believe that a hacker is a kind of wizard who launches one of their "magic" programs, indicates the name of the server to be hacked, and after a few seconds its protection is hacked. However, don't underestimate the threat posed by hackers. Criminal hackers are no more dangerous, but no less dangerous than other criminals.
You can learn hacking from books. In recent years, many books have been published with titles ranging from "Hacking for idiots, morons and imbeciles and not only" to "The Hacker's Quran". What will the reader get by purchasing such a book? At best, an overview of vulnerabilities in popular systems, which will be out of date before the book reaches the reader. It would be naive to believe that someone will reveal their secrets.
It's very easy to become a hacker. Many people think that in order to become a hacker, it is enough to go online and go to one of the hacker's servers. However, I never managed to find a single server that would contain any useful information. As a rule, everything that is located on "hacker" servers is "philosophical" articles about hacking, propaganda of hacker ideals and advertising of the achievements of individual hackers. Typically, many "hacker" servers are sponsored by firms that make money by distributing pornography on the Internet. Hackers undoubtedly exist, but those who really are, and not only call themselves that, do not seek dubious popularity by advertising themselves on the Internet. There are, of course, exceptions, but mostly qualified criminal hackers remain in the shadows until the moment of arrest. Therefore, the "hacker" community on the Internet, as a rule, can do nothing to help a novice hacker, and in order to really become a hacker, you need to study long and hard, no matter how trite it sounds. Hacking is a huge undertaking, often at the expense of other areas of life (from personal to school). And it is not always possible to share your joy with friends, hacking is not encouraged by law. Sleepless nights and intellectual struggles may be exciting and romantic, but for most people, the game is not worth the candle.
Women hackers don't exist. Oddly enough, they exist. True, very few, and most of these women have a purely masculine mindset. As one expert remarked, "either she is a woman or a programmer."
A hacker always attacks a system via global networks. Talking about hackers, authors of scientific books and articles very often "fixate" on protecting against an attacker attacking a secure network from the Internet, and completely ignore that there are many other methods of penetrating protected systems. For example, the well-known American hacker Kevin Mitnick hacked into a secure server of one company, digging into a trash can next to its building: after a long search, he found a piece of paper with a password for accessing the server. Another time, Mitnick called the administrator and misled him, convincing him that he was a legal user of the system who had forgotten his password. The administrator changed the password to the user that Mitnick impersonated, and gave it to Mitnick. Thus, while defending oneself, one cannot be limited only to software and hardware means and neglect administrative, organizational and operational security measures.
Hackers are mainly engaged in breaking into banking systems in order to get rich. In order to debunk this myth, it is enough to look through the list of the last ten Internet servers hacked, according to the Archive of hacked websites and make sure that their goals were either ordinary hooliganism, or posting on them some statements of public and political content, or there have been demonstrative hacks, leaving on the "home" page, as has been done for a number of US military servers, information for system administrators on issues related to improving their knowledge of computer security. And there was not a single attack aimed at enrichment or obtaining confidential information. Of course, hackers attacking banking systems also exist, but there are only a few of them. Most of the hackers get moral satisfaction from the very fact of successfully penetrating someone else's secure server. However, this does not mean that hackers do not pose a threat to banks. You just have to keep in mind that hackers who make money by hacking the ABS, hackers who leave "words" like "Vasya was here" on Web servers, and hackers who lead discussions on teleconferences are completely different people, and therefore the danger posed by hackers should not be exaggerated, but should not be underestimated.
Hackers only work on Unix. This is a very common myth. And the thing is that he went from the "anti-Microsoft" theme. Although I must admit that there is some truth in this myth. Still, Unixes, with all their holes, allow you to do things that Windows cannot do. And when the hack happens with an exploit, it is from under Unix. But do not forget about OS / 2, about the same Windows, about social engineering, etc. Besides, all hackers work on several systems, and Windows is one of them. The simplest Windows hack: connect to the front-page server and enter the default passwords. Admin forgot to change them? Well, so he was hacked.
Hackers are computer youth. Good myth. Although in reality the situation is different. They write more about young people, talk more, etc. Simply because she is reckless and ready to shine. But 40-year-old men working for the government and breaking codes to strategically important information will not tell journalists about this. Therefore, they, like, do not exist :)
Russian hackers are the coolest! The situation here is this: at the dawn of the computer era, almost no one had computers at home. And in the states were. In general, richer people lived there. And it was very fashionable to give a computer to your beloved child for his birthday. So it turned out that in the "scoop" on computers only professionals worked, and abroad - all and sundry. And that's why our hackers were more professional. Although, with all due respect to domestic hacking, let me remind you that in the same States, normal computers also stood at universities and research centers, where they were not suckers at the monitors either. Only the US guys didn't have to break the program, they could buy them, but we couldn't. Firstly, they were not officially sold with us, and if they were, we would not have enough money to buy all this. And secondly, in the states, if they found out that an employee at the workplace breaks the program, and is not engaged in business, then they would be fired immediately, and there they held their teeth at the workplace. As we have now. But time passed, and everything fell into place. Now we have a lot of suckers, whom the PC mom gave for the New Year and who already consider themselves mega-ultra hackers. So at the moment there are no "best" ones. With the development of the Internet, hacking has become truly international, with many groups bringing together people from all over the world.
A hacker is a punk or anarchist at heart. Not at all necessary. Anyone can have any convictions in their souls and hackers are no exception.
Hackers break something to show off. It happens, but this alignment is most often among young people who still need to prove to themselves that they are hackers. Normal people, on the other hand, hack into something out of need. One person played gamez and got stuck at level 12. Fought, fought - nothing. I got tired, got into the game with the debugger and threw myself to the next level, and at the same time I registered a hotkey to make it easier next time. That's how the toy turned out to be broken. And the other needs money, his parents are poor, he collected a computer from junk, and it's not even a computer, but old stuff. So he starts carding on the sly or breaking down the defenses for money. The third in the Internet really needs, but there is no money. I had to share the Internet with someone. Only this "someone" does not even know about his good deed. they just rarely break, only when there is really nothing to do. Usually, there is some normal motive behind the break-in, and not "this is what I am!"
You should stay away from hackers. Abroad, there has long been a practice of cooperation between hackers and organizations. A certain agreement is concluded under which a hacker breaks into the system without causing harm, and informs the organization about the gaps in the system, giving recommendations for their elimination. At the same time, he undertakes not to disseminate information about vulnerabilities, at least until they are eliminated.