Feuerbach Ludwig Andreas is a famous German philosopher. He was born in 1804 to the family of a criminalist. Feuerbach took Hegel's philosophical views from the Hegelian Daub. A little later, he himself attended Hegel's lectures in Berlin.
The basis of Feuerbach's philosophy was the conviction that only sensuality can be the source of true knowledge, true, in the opinion of this philosopher, is only the concrete and the individual (in this regard, there are no general concepts).
Power is inherent in the human mind. Feuerbach gave great importance in philosophy to religious issues. In his opinion, religion arises on the basis of a person's fear of natural phenomena and the inability to explain them at an early stage of development.
Later, a person begins to see in God what he wants to be himself, that is, God absorbs those characteristics that a person would like to have. Feuerbach denies the dualism of body and soul, believing that such a concept as an immortal soul has no meaning.
Body and soul are inseparable from each other. Since Feuerbach's doctrine is addressed to man, it is often called anthropological materialism.
Feuerbach's philosophy is the completion of Hegel's doctrine. Moreover, it is overcoming the teachings of the given philosopher, as well as his predecessors. Feuerbach took the position of judgments according to which man is inextricably linked with his mind and at the same time is a product of nature. Hegel, on the other hand, considered thinking and man separately from each other, insisting on a fundamental difference between the needs of man and his sensual activity. Feuerbach, moreover, is sure that it is sensory data that should become the foundation from which philosophy will proceed. Thus, the following formulation seems to be correct: the organs of philosophy are actually the human sense organs.
The link between philosophy and natural science is stronger than the link between philosophy and theology. As a result of this, the "marriage" between philosophy and natural science will be very fruitful. Salvation after death is what religion promises to man. The goal of philosophy is to help man fulfill the promises of religion on earth. There is no other world - in this Feuerbach is completely sure. Philosophy should give a person the opportunity to know their capabilities, and not receive imaginary consolation.
Philosophy is the doctrine of man. Feuerbach is the creator of the theory of anthropological materialism. Only man has the ability to think. Thus, the problem of the essence of man is based on the relation of thinking to being. Feuerbach denies the superhuman essence of thinking, and its extra-natural peculiarity (this is actually a denial of the idealistic interpretation of thinking). Material processes are inextricably linked with human thinking. Such a connection is revealed by the sciences that investigate human activity, in particular, physiology. Man and nature are inseparable from each other; therefore, the spiritual, towering over it, cannot be opposed above nature. Anthropology, according to Feuerbach, is becoming a universal science. In this regard, the philosopher advocates for the recognition of the unity of the physical and spiritual and the denial of the fact of the dualism of the soul and body. Being and thinking, physical and mental, objective and subjective, are also one.
The essence of a person is reflected in public consciousness. The essence of a person is his experience, sensuality, the life of the heart and mind. Man, first of all, is a loving, suffering being. He is characterized by the pursuit of happiness and other values. It is the vital content that should become the basis for the study of various forms of social consciousness (for example, religion). Feuerbach's anthropological method is special in that it reduces the supersensible to the sensible, the fantastic to the real, etc. He stands for the unity of all people, since the activity of each person is of a sensual nature.
Feuerbach is a critic of idealism. The philosopher refutes the idealistic idea of the possibility of logical substantiation of the existence of the external world. He talks about the impossibility of removing nature from consciousness and thinking. All these idealistic attempts, the philosopher is sure, are based on the assumption of the existence of a supernatural principle. Speculative idealism, in his opinion, raises a supernatural spirit over nature, as a result of which its existence outside consciousness becomes impossible.
Feuerbach is a critic of religion. The philosopher understands the essence of religion from an anthropological point of view. In this regard, religion is reduced to the development of bourgeois atheism. Feuerbach agreed with the arguments of the materialists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, according to which elemental forces of nature give rise to human fear. Under the influence of this fear, a religious feeling appears. However, Feuerbach complements these materialistic judgments: he says that religion reflects not only the fear of man, but also his hopes, ideals, suffering, difficulties, aspirations. The philosopher believes that God is what man strives to be, and therefore the vital content fills religion as a whole. Religion, therefore, is not nonsense or illusion.
Religion appears at an early stage of human development. It is with this stage of human history that the philosopher connects the birth of religion. During this historical period, man was not able to reliably understand natural phenomena. He could not correctly interpret everything on which his life depended. That is why in those days man began to worship natural phenomena. Feuerbach draws attention to the fact that animals also depend on nature, and to a much greater extent than humans. Despite this, animals are devoid of imagination, thinking and spiritual life. Religion arises on the basis of a person's ability to think abstractly. The human heart, according to the philosopher, is the essence of religion. The human heart strives to love and believe, and this is its main difference from the cold reason. The whole person is reflected in religion. Deeper into this question, Feuerbach declares that man does not want to die, and therefore he believes in an immortal being, man wants to be perfect, and therefore he believes in a perfect being. In a similar way, the philosopher explains religion - it is an anthropological understanding.
Feuerbach is a reformer of religion. The philosopher often repeated that the existing ideas about the world - religiously fantastic - would be destroyed, a person could achieve on earth what religion promises him only after death. Religious feeling, according to the philosopher, cannot be overcome. The love of one person for another is also a religious feeling. In such interpretations, atheism is seen as a religion without God. This kind of understanding of religion is very broad. This is a rather weak point in Feuerbach's anthropology. It allows you to justify the emergence of religious feelings. This philosopher practically reduces the role of religion in history to the basic spiritual life of man.
Feuerbach's materialistic doctrine of nature is the basis of his philosophical anthropology. Nature is the only reality - this philosopher's judgment is opposed to religion and idealism. The highest product and, accordingly, the expression of nature is man. Nature thinks about itself and feels itself thanks to man and in man himself. The philosopher is sure that nature has nothing above it and below it, so one cannot agree with the arguments of the idealists related to the belittling of nature. Moreover, according to Feuerbach, the following concepts are synonyms: "nature", "reality", "reality", "matter", "being", since they essentially mean the same thing.
Nature is infinite in time and space. Only the emergence of individual phenomena can be determined by time, while nature itself is eternal. These hypotheses can be proved, from the point of view of a given philosopher, not only with the help of knowledge, but also with the whole human life. No natural phenomena can be endowed with a double existence (this is proved by the experience of man), therefore the otherworldly does not exist. The philosopher attempts to overcome the mechanical understanding of nature that took place among the materialists of the eighteenth century. Human sensations are diverse. This diversity corresponds to the diversity of natural qualities. Feuerbach understands the unity of nature and man from an anthropological point of view.
Human activity and his emotional life are of great cognitive importance. Thus, Feuerbach is not at all limited to describing the role of the sense organs in human cognition. However, it characterizes sensory activity without connection with material production.
Theoretical thinking is not considered by Feuerbach as an important cognitive function of a person. This is not true. Feuerbach does not take into account sense data. He highly appreciates the role of cognition acquired through the senses. But he also recognizes the important role of thinking. It consists in analyzing empirically obtained data and understanding their hidden content. Human thinking should be comparable to sensory contemplation. Thus, sensory perception is the criterion for the truth of thinking. True, Feuerbach clarifies that such a comparison is not always possible in reality. This is based on the fact that in the process of thinking a person cognizes not only the present, but also the past and the future. This means that he comprehends what is no longer there, and what does not yet exist. However, reasoning in this way, Feuerbach does not come to the conclusion about the connection between practice and theoretical knowledge. Although sometimes a philosopher talks about practice. For example, Feuerbach believes that practice is capable of solving those questions that theory cannot resolve. However, he lacks a scientific understanding of practice.
Feuerbach's sociological views are the most original part of his theory. And at the same time, the least developed. The philosopher was unable to understand public consciousness and social life from a material point of view. He did not come to a materialistic understanding of history, believing that it is human sensibility that is the main force behind the behavior of the whole society and the individual.