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Dyslexia is the inability of a person to master the skills of reading and writing, but at the same time the general ability to learn is preserved. People with this impairment cannot learn mathematics, they have problems maintaining attention, motor skills and coordination are impaired. In domestic medicine, such problems are considered separately.
The term itself was coined by the German ophthalmologist Rudolf Berlin in 1887. He worked with a boy who just had learning difficulties. And although the symptoms of dyslexia are easy to detect, the disorder itself is quite unusual and unusual even for experienced parents and educators. In addition, some misconceptions in this matter interfere.
Dyslexia is more common in boys than girls. Some experts even call the ratio four to one. But there is no consensus on this topic. Doctors assume that boys have some genetic vulnerability in their chromosomes. But in schools, dyslexia occurs in roughly equal proportions among the sexes. The formation of the myth is also influenced by the fact that girls try to accept a challenge, while boys respond to the problem with irritability and disobedience. Teachers should pay more attention to the behavioral difficulties of children.
Children with dyslexia write letters in mirror images. This spelling of letters does not always indicate dyslexia. For example, it is typical for left-handed people to write letters Z, R, H, C in a mirror image. At the initial stage of training, many write letters incorrectly, not immediately remembering the direction of the letter elements. You can talk about dyslexia if the failure is long-term and persistent. But this is far from the only problem with deviation. People with dyslexia have a variety of problems with reading, communication, speaking, and spelling skills.
People with dyslexia should try harder. The brain functions differently in people with dyslexia. Some traditional reading techniques and techniques may simply not work. Research has shown that people with dyslexia get the most out of intensive or structured learning. Some techniques involve the maximum involvement of the capabilities of the brain, including sight, hearing, and touch.
Dyslexia is an indicator of low IQ. Dyslexia does not in any way determine the level of a person's intelligence. Deviation occurs in children of different social strata and brain capabilities. When it comes to dyslexia, no one puts a fool on a child. With the right support, many children even go to college and build successful careers. The development of science is gradually bringing the myth to naught. It became possible to talk not about a mental disorder, but about the peculiarities of the brain. But he gives the owners superiority in imaginative thinking. It is known that dyslexics are famous for their non-standard solutions. Many actors, artists and scientists have just such a violation. You can name the names of D. Aniston, S. Spielberg, V. Goldberg, R. Branson. True, unusualness can give rise to an inferiority complex. Such people may have difficulty finding jobs, which even draws them to a criminal environment.
Dyslexia is treatable. In fact, dyslexia is a lifelong brain disorder. Early intervention and proper classroom and living space equipment can have a significant positive impact on reading skills and academic performance.
The child outgrows dyslexia. This is a pretty dangerous misconception that has accompanied dyslexia for a long time. As a result, parents were inactive, expecting a breakthrough from their child. And they turned to specialists in a neglected case. If a child is diagnosed at the age of 9-10, then he can still be taught to read. But this will not be easy. Dyslexia does not come and does not go away, people are born with it and keep this violation for a lifetime.
Dyslexia is caused by damage to the brain. In fact, this failure appears due to a violation of the synchronous work of the right and left hemispheres. More recently, scientists have determined that learning problems are not related to brain defects, but to its special mode of operation. Man is not yet fully capable of understanding this. Recent studies have shown that dyslexia appears due to neurobiological causes. Some areas of the brain are less active than usual. And the structure of the brain tissue is different from the norm. Back in 1917, the Englishman Hinshelwood noted cases of dyslexia in relatives. But it wasn't until 1950 that fundamental research was carried out to prove the hereditary nature of dyslexia. There were also genes responsible for this violation.
It is better to identify dyslexia before school so that it is easier for the child to learn. The modern general education system will make teaching dyslexic painful anyway. The child spends most of his time at school in an immobilized state, the activity of the sense organs is ignored, since priority is given to instructive-programming techniques. But the impact on mechanical memory is meaningless for a student with dyslexia.
Dyslexics write in a clumsy handwriting and with numerous errors. According to the latest data, the motivation to write competently defeats the natural illiteracy of the dyslexic. It is not the training itself that is important here, but the exercises that require effort. It is important for a person to constantly try to solve problems that require the mobilization of all resources and sometimes even exceed their capabilities.
Dyslexics are absolutely ordinary people. Today, such people are considered to be progressive representatives of society. Their specially organized brain activity defines the unique intelligence of a dyslexic and sets him apart from the number of ordinary people.
Dyslexia is a disease. Dyslexia is a diagnosis that identifies the special in terms of a person's organization. Information can be perceived by them in volumetric form. Those words and symbols that cannot be represented figuratively give off emptiness in perception. This can lead to confusion. That is why information is poorly perceived, clumsiness, disorganization and disorientation, attention deficit and hyper / hypoactivity are observed. But there are many compensatory behaviors with which a dyslexic can get out of this state unnoticed, even by others.
Dyslexia is associated with poor vision. According to recent studies, popular visual impairments such as hyperopia, strabismus, myopia, and poor focus were no more common in children with dyslexia than in their ordinary peers.
Dyslexia doesn't exist at all. More than 30 years ago, scientific research has confirmed the existence of dyslexia. This made it possible to revise the approaches to teaching problem children.
Dyslexia is extremely rare. Studies in the United States have shown that signs of dyslexia are found in 5-10% of the population, with other estimates reaching 17%. The International Dyslexia Foundation states that 15 to 20% of the population has learning problems, and dyslexia is usually the culprit. Some people have mild forms, while others have severe symptoms. Dyslexia in primary school is one of the most common reading problems. Only one in ten dyslexics receive personalized attention and special assistance in learning to read.
Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed. Today, specialists can quite accurately identify a group at risk even in kindergarten, and in the first grade, dyslexia is already identified. The final diagnosis is made at the age when the child begins to actively learn to read and write. And it's important to get a diagnosis as early as possible. This will signal the need to help the child. This will preserve his dignity. The combination of inheritance in dyslexia and difficulty speaking can help identify a vulnerable child even before formal schooling begins.
Dyslexia can be diagnosed by an ordinary teacher on the basis of special tests. This is technically true, but the diagnosis may differ depending on the personality of the professional. Specialists in their reports use phrases such as "the child has specific problems in phonological development" instead of the obvious diagnosis of "dyslexia". School staff prefer not to get involved with this phenomenon. But this is just a matter of semantics. In most American states, dyslexia requires a specialized approach to education. It is understood that the child has a specific inability to learn to read and write.
Dyslexia is diagnosed by doctors. This problem is not of a medical nature and is not diagnosed by doctors. The fact is that these specialists do not have adequate training for working with the child's oral speech, teaching him to read, write, they cannot evaluate the spelling and somehow evaluate it. Dyslexia requires additional training for pediatricians, some of whom receive neurobiological information about the disorder.
People with dyslexia generally cannot read. Most dyslexic children and adults can read at least at a basic level. Spelling is a classic warning sign for parents and teachers. The child may not understand the basic rules of the language and may not be able to parse or add words using letters.
Children with dyslexia will never be able to read well even with compensatory techniques. Scientifically systematic and explicit work allows people with dyslexia to master reading to perfection. You just need to identify problems in time before they affect motivation and psyche.
Reading aloud for 20 minutes daily can help a child with dyslexia. Reading unknown words aloud will not help a child in any way. Instead, he will try to memorize the shape of the word and use contextual and visual cues to try to guess it. This will not help the development of direct reading skills.
People with dyslexia see things backwards. Dyslexia is not related to vision. Research has shown that children unfold letters regardless of whether they have dyslexia or not. Deviation can force you to read words backwards, but this is due to a malfunction in the brain hemispheres. The University of Albany conducted a study asking students to reproduce a series of complex Hebrew letters from memory. Dyslexic students completed the task with the same margin of error as their regular classmates. So dyslexia does not affect vision in any way.
Teachers know how to deal with dyslexia. Once a child with dyslexia enters school, they usually face problems. The fact is that most teachers don't know much about dyslexia and certainly don't know how to deal with it. There are many learning disabilities that teachers face in a standard classroom. It is simply impossible for a teacher to be an expert in all matters. So, the problem child should be singled out, discussing his further education with the teacher and director.