Cholecystitis is an inflammatory disease of the gallbladder. The disease can also be of a parasitic nature.
Cholecystitis can be acute or chronic. Also distinguish between calculous and non-calculous cholecystitis. The first is associated with the formation of calculi (i.e. stones) in the gallbladder. They arise as a result of increased concentration and stagnation of bile in the gallbladder.
Signs of bladder pathology include bouts of pain (hepatic colic), nausea, heaviness in the abdomen, belching, constipation.
Cholecystitis is diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound and laboratory tests. The latter, in particular, include a blood test for bilirubin and bile acids. Sometimes the patient is also given an X-ray examination.
Cholecystitis is a common disease. Among diseases of the digestive system, it is indeed very common - there is an increase in the number of patients with acute cholecystitis in the world. Among all patients admitted to the surgical department, the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis ranks second - immediately after acute appendicitis.
Many factors contribute to the development of cholecystitis. The predisposing factors of this disease are the presence of parasites, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, trauma to the liver and gallbladder, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet (irregular eating or overeating), impaired immune status, and some others. A special role in the development of cholecystitis is played by stagnation of bile in the gallbladder, as well as the presence of a bacterial infection - when these factors combine, inflammation of the gallbladder occurs. Heredity also occupies a certain place among the factors that determine the development of cholecystitis.
Gallstone disease leads to the development of cholecystitis. Rather, it contributes to the development of this disease, but does not necessarily lead to it. Often it is the presence of stones in the gallbladder (especially in the elderly) that provokes the development of such a disease as cholecystitis. However, if cholecystitis occurs at a young age, then, most likely, there is no cholelithiasis; however, it can develop when the course of cholecystitis becomes long-term. In addition to gallstone disease, the following diseases can lead to cholecystitis: gastritis, dyskinesia.
Microbes are the causative agents of cholecystitis. In most cases, this is the case. Pathogens include streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli. These microbes enter the gallbladder through the bile ducts. Diseases caused by parasites (ascariasis, lambliochus) can also serve as provoking factors for the development of cholecystitis.
Germs enter the gallbladder through the intestines. Not only through him. Pathogenic microorganisms can get into the gallbladder from distant foci of infection in some diseases (with sinusitis, tonsillitis, etc.). in this case, they enter the gallbladder with the flow of lymph or blood.
Cholecystitis is a serious medical condition. In no case should you give up on him and say: "It will pass by itself!" Cholecystitis must be treated. Moreover, the course of treatment is prescribed by a specialist after all the required studies have been carried out, on the basis of which the cause of the disease can be identified. If cholecystitis is not treated, then this disease can give serious complications that will pose a danger to the patient's life.
There are two forms of cholecystitis. Based on how the disease starts. They talk about acute cholecystitis (acute onset) and chronic cholecystitis (gradual onset of the disease).
Women are more prone to the development of acute cholecystitis. In principle, people of different ages can have this disease. However, obese women (especially if they are more than fifty years old) have a much higher risk of developing acute cholecystitis than the rest of the population.
Acute cholecystitis is provoked by gallstone disease. The cause of the development of this disease, as a rule, is the blockage of the bile duct by the stone. But acute cholecystitis without gallstone disease is much less common.
Colic in the right hypochondrium is a harbinger of an acute form of cholecystitis. Basically, colic (a sudden attack of pain that has a cramping character) occurs some time later (usually a few hours) after a meal (for example, a hearty lunch). Its most likely cause is a blockage of the cystic duct with a stone. The duration of an attack varies from a few minutes to several hours. A painful attack can pass without any medical action, or it still requires the introduction of antispasmodics.
Obstructive jaundice is a manifestation of acute cholecystitis. It occurs when the common bile duct is blocked. As a result, the color of human skin becomes yellow. It is impossible to feel deeply vividly, since the abdominal muscles are tense. The abdomen is painful. This is the so-called sign of "acute abdomen". In this case, the patient must be taken to the surgical department, where the specialist will make a choice of treatment.
Acute cholecystitis is treated surgically. Not always. Having delivered the patient to the surgical department, the doctor determines whether there are indications for surgery. If there are none, then bed rest is prescribed, a certain diet. Drug treatment includes antispasmodic and analgesic drugs, and if necessary, antibiotics. Surgical intervention is necessary when the suspicion of complications of acute cholecystitis, in particular perforation of the gallbladder, is justified. Surgical treatment involves removing the stone (which caused the blocked ducts) or the entire gallbladder. In this regard, with an attack of acute cholecystitis, in no case should you take painkillers without the supervision of a specialist, since the picture of the disease may be smoothed out. At the same time, a specialist will not always be able to determine the moment of perforation of the gallbladder.
Acute cholecystitis leads to the development of chronic cholecystitis. The statement cannot be called completely correct, because, although acute cholecystitis can turn into a chronic form, this does not always happen. Chronic cholecystitis in most cases occurs due to gallstone disease (when stones affect the walls of the gallbladder for a long period) - in this case, they speak of calculous cholecystitis. But there are cases when in chronic pancreatitis stones in the gallbladder are not observed - cholecystitis in this case is not calculous.
Many signs indicate the beginning of the development of chronic cholecystitis. First, the patient develops bitterness in the mouth. In the right hypochondrium, a person begins to feel pain and heaviness. Nausea, vomiting and belching also accompany the development of this disease.
Chronic cholecystitis is characterized by recurrent exacerbations. The picture of the disease becomes similar to the appearance of acute cholecystitis. Exacerbations can occur after errors in the prescribed diet. Diseases of other organs, as well as physical activity, can also provoke an exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis. For the exacerbation of the chronic form of the disease, cholecystitis is characterized by an increase in temperature, an increase in pain, and vomiting. Exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis requires maintenance of bed rest and strict adherence to the diet. The latter should include fractional meals and a sparing diet, that is, food should be steamed, low-fat foods should be boiled).
Chronic cholecystitis is treated conservatively. It is wrong to say that surgical treatment is not required for the chronic form of cholecystitis. Calculous cholecystitis is surgically treated (since medicinal methods have not yet been invented, with the help of which it would be possible to dissolve already formed stones). Non-calculous cholecystitis, as a rule, does not require surgery. Exceptions are complicated forms of non-calculous cholecystitis. If the doctor has decided on the conservative treatment of chronic cholecystitis, then it should be aimed at eliminating the inflammatory process, eliminating bile stagnation. The goal of treatment is also to restore the normal functioning of the biliary tract.
Cholecystectomy was first performed at the end of the nineteenth century. Namely, June 5, 1882. German doctor K. Langenbuch performed the world's first operation to remove the gallbladder. True, the positive results of the operation were called purely random by many of this doctor's contemporaries. And in response to Langenbuch's report at the Belgian Medical Academy, a significant part of the audience began to object to this operation. Now, cholecystectomy is performed quite often (its purpose is not only to remove the gallbladder, but also to ensure that bile will freely enter the duodenum) and helps many people continue to lead a normal life.
Prevention of chronic cholecystitis includes many components. Basically, they are rudimentary and come from maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Each person should eat right, lead an active lifestyle, provide themselves with adequate sleep, etc. Also, an important factor is the timely treatment of acute cholecystitis (if this disease occurs).
Lemon has a beneficial effect on the condition of the gallbladder. Lemon is one of the supportive remedies. Alternative medicine says that with the following recipe it is possible to free the gallbladder from stagnant bile. It is necessary to mix the juice of one lemon with one and a half liters of water. This composition is used to cleanse the body with an enema. Treatment is carried out once a week. The choleretic agent is the following composition: lemon minced through a meat grinder, grated garlic (3 cloves) - this mass must be mixed with three tablespoons of honey. Take two tablespoons on an empty stomach as needed.